When the Earth Speaks Against Us: Environmental Ethics in Islam
Ethics in Islam
Sources for an Islamic ethics
Understanding Environmental Ethics
Data from Survey
Environmental Ethics: Western Theories
Environmental Ethics: Islamic theory
Islam and nature
The All-Merciful has taught the Qur’an. He created man and He taught him the explanation. The sun and the moon to a reckoning, and the stars and trees bow themselves; and heaven—He raised it up and set the balance. Transgress not in the balance, and weigh with justice, and skimp not in the balance. And Earth—He set it down for all beings, therein fruits and palm trees with sheaths, and grain in the blade, and fragrant herbs. Which of your Lord’s bounties will you deny? (Qur’an 55: 1–12)
Have you seen the water which you drink? Was it you who sent it down from the rain cloud, or did We send it? Were it Our will, We could have made it bitter; why then do you not give thanks? (Qur’an 56: 68–70)
The rights of creatures and animals over humanity are the following: that he provides for them as they require, even if they have aged or sickened such that no benefit comes from them; that he not burden them beyond what they can bear; that he not put them together with another creature that could injure it, whether of their own kind or other species, whether by breaking their bones or butting or wounding them; that he slaughters them with gentleness and he does not flay their skins or break their bones until their bodies have become cold and passed away; that he not slaughter their young within their sight but rather he does so in solitude; that he makes their resting and watering places comfortable; that he puts the males and females together during their mating seasons; that he does not discard what he has hunted; and that he does not shoot them with anything that breaks their bones or harms them by any means that would render their meat forbidden to eat.58
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5 Ibid., p. 3.
6 Hovannisian, Richard G. Ethics in Islam. Malibu, CA: Undena, 1985, p. 11.
7 Fakhry, Majid. Ethical Theories in Islam. Leiden: Brill, 1994, p. 18.
8 Ibn Ḥanbal, Aḥmad. Musnad al-Imām Aḥmad ibn Ḥanbal (Mu’assasat al-Risālah, 2001), 14:513 #8952; declared authentic (ṣaḥīḥ) by Al-Arnā'ūṭ in the comments.
9 Jami` at-Tirmidhi Vol. 4, Book of Righteousness And Maintaining Good Relations With Relatives, Hadith 2002.
10 Fakhry, Majid. Ethical Theories in Islam. Leiden: Brill, 1994, p. 11.
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12 Carson, Rachel. Silent Spring. London: Penguin Books, in Association with Hamish Hamilton, 2015. (Original 1962, Camberwell Victoria).
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14 Attfield, Robin. Environmental Ethics: An Overview for the Twenty-first Century. Cambridge: Polity Press, 2014.
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23 Blackstone, William T. Philosophy & Environmental Crisis:. Athens: University of Georgia Press, 1974.
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25 Boylan, Michael. Environmental Ethics. Malden, MA: Wiley Blackwell, 2014, 207-11.
26 Ibid., p. 207.
27 Golding, Martin. "Content of Justice-based Obligations towards Future Generations in the Context of Climate Change." Moinst 56, no. 1 (1972): 85-99. doi:10.5840/monist197256118.
28 Barry, Brian, and Richard I. Sikora. Obligations to Future Generations. Knapwell: White Horse Press, 1996, 186-203.
29 Dobson, Andrew. Fairness and Futurity: Essays on Environmental Sustainability and Social Justice. Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press, 2011, p. 93.
30 Ibid., p. 95.
31 Singer, Peter. 1974. All animals are equal. Philosophical Exchange 1. Reprinted in LaFollette, Hugh (ed.). 2007. Ethics in Practice: Third Edition. Malden, MA: Blackwell, pp. 171-180.
32 Regan, Tom. The Case for Animal Rights. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2010.
33 Warren, Mary Anne. Moral Status: Obligations to Persons and Other Living Things. Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press, 2009, p. 48.
34 Taylor, Paul W. Respect for Nature: A Theory of Environmental Ethics. Princeton, N.J: Princeton University Press, 2011.
35 Leopold, Aldo, and Charles Walsh. Schwartz. A Sand County Almanac and Sketches Here and There. London: Oxford University Press, 1968.
36 Ibid., p. 218.
37 Ibid., p. 225.
38 Zimmerman, Michael E. Environmental Philosophy: From Animal Rights to Radical Ecology. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson/Prentice Hall, 2005. pp.101-13.
39 Ibid., p.101.
40 Johnson, Lawrence E. A Morally Deep World: An Essay on Moral Significance and Environmental Ethics. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press, 2010, p. 141.
41 Ibid., p. 142.
42 Regan, Tom. The Case for Animal Rights. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2010, p. 362.
43 Yucel, Salih. (2011). Said Nursi’s Approach to the Ziauddin Sardar on Islam, Science and Cultural Environment: A Spiritual View on the Book of Relations, edited by Ehsan Masood. London: Pluto Universe. "January 01, 2014.
44 Jabir, Al Alwani Taha. Issues in Contemporary Islamic Thought. United States: International Institute of Islamic Thought, 2005, pp. 4-5.
45 Özdemir, Levent. Toward an Understanding of Environmental Ethics from a Qur’anic Perspective. London: Ta-Ha Publishers, 2003, p. 37.
46 Bagader, Abubakar A., Abdullatif Tawfik. Sabbagh, Mohamad As-Sayyid Al-Glayand, and Mawil Yousuf Izzi-Deen Samarrai. Environmental Protection in Islam. Gland, Switzerland: IUCN, 1994, p. 8.
48 Kamali, Hashim. "Environmental Care in Islam: A Qur'anic Perspective." Islam and Civilizational Renewal 3, no. 2 (2012): 267. http://www.iais.org.my/icr/index.php/icr/article/view/66/62.
49 Sunan Ibn Majah Vol. 3, Book of Chapters on Rulings, Hadith 2340.
50 Bāqādir, Abū Bakr Aḥmad. Basic Paper on the Islamic Principles for the Conservation of the Natural Environment / Etude De Base Sur Les Principes Islamiques Relatifs À La Conservation De Le̕nvironnement Naturel / by Abou Bakr Ahmed Ba Kader. Gland, Switzerland: International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN), 1983.
51 Al-Mubarakpuri, Shaykh Safiur-Rahman. Tafsir Ibn Kathir (10 Volumes; Abridged). S.l., 2000. (See Surah Qamar, verse 28).
52Sunan Ibn Majah Vol. 3, Book of Chapters on Pawning, Hadith 2473.
53 Ibid., Chapter No. 2, The Chapters of Purification and its Sunnah, Hadith 425.
54 Sahih Muslim Vol. 2, Book of Zakat, Hadith 2242.
55 Sahih Bukhārī Vol. 3, Book 43, Hadith 646.
56 Ibid., Vol. 3, Book 39, Hadith 513.
57 Musnad Ahmad, Hadith 12491.
58 Qawāʻid al-Aḥkām fī Iṣlāḥ al-Anām 1/167.
59 Chakravarty, S., Ghosh, S. K., Suresh, C. P., Dey, A. N., and Gopal Shukla. "Deforestation: Causes, Effects and Control Strategies." Global Perspectives on Sustainable Forest Management, 2012. doi:10.5772/33342.
60 Munn, Ted. Encyclopedia of Global Environmental Change. Chichester: Wiley, 2002; Khalid, F. Islam, Ecology and the World Science, Values and the Environment in Islam and Order. Islam and the Environment, pp. 332-39.
61 Oberndorfer, Erica, Jeremy Lundholm, Brad Bass, Reid R. Coffman, Hitesh Doshi, Nigel Dunnett, Stuart Gaffin, Manfred Köhler, Karen K. Y. Liu, and Bradley Rowe. “Green Roofs as Urban Ecosystems: Ecological Structures, Functions, and Services.” BioScience 57, no. 10 (2007): 823-33. doi:10.1641/b571005.
62 Sahih Muslim Vol. 6, Book of Heart-Melting Traditions, Hadith 6606.
63 Ibid., Vol. 4, Book of Government, Hadith 4496.
64 Chai Charoen Wattana, Amornchai, and Chanathip Pharino. "Co-Benefits of Household Waste Recycling for Local Community’s Sustainable Waste Management in Thailand." Sustainability 7, no. 6 (2015): p. 7417. doi:10.3390/su7067417.
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